Effects Of Ketonaemia And Kd On The Course Of Ad
In people with AD, damage to the mechanisms that allow glucose to be used in energy processes is observed. Reducing its supply in favor of a substrate that can be used more efficiently by the brain appears to be a reasonable addition to therapy. Reducing carbohydrate supply during KD results in a decrease in insulin levels, which stimulates the oxidation of fatty acids to ketone bodies, which then permeate the blood. BOHB and acetoacetate cross the blood-brain barrier. The ability to utilize ketone bodies in individuals with AD is preserved, allowing the brain to efficiently carry out energy processes using them .
The presence of ketone bodies in blood has a beneficial effect in AD. Ketone bodies reduce -amyloid, improve mitochondrial function, and reduce reactive oxygen forms in the hippocampus .
In another study conducted by Taylor et al. , 10 patients diagnosed with a mild form of Alzheimers underwent a dietary intervention to introduce a KD containing 70% fat for 3 months. In the first part of the study, 10% of the required energy from fat was supplied by MCT oil. Its amount was gradually increased until it reached 40% of energy from fat. When analyzing the results of the study, no significant differences were observed in biochemical parameters after the diet, but better results were reported in tests measuring the patients ability to remember and focus attention .
Can A Ketogenic Diet Prevent Development Of Alzheimers
The mouse work and early human studies are certainly positive, and there are in fact several clinical trials ongoing looking into this effect. 67891011
Of these studies two are particularly interesting as they could potentially answer the impact of a ketogenic diet in those at risk, but who currently dont have Alzheimers. 76
So whats stopping everyone jumping on board the ketogenic diet, especially those who are 4 positive?
Well firstly, the lack of response in 4 positive individuals is quite striking. The simple answer may be that the dietary interventions described didnt last long enough to see an effect in this population, another potential is that the symptoms are more severe in these individuals and so cannot be rescued by a ketogenic diet.
We simply dont know at this point.
Alzheimers Vs Epilepsy On Keto
This idea isnt actually as far out as it sounds. In fact, epilepsy was often treated with a high-fat low-carb diet until the development of anticonvulsant drugs.
Its use as a therapy or co-therapy has even begun to increase again in recent years as the ketogenic diet becomes more mainstream and people want to move away from medication. 2
However, just because the ketogenic diet works in epilepsy does not necessarily mean it works in those at greater risk for Alzheimers.
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The Ketogenic Diet Vs Ketone Supplements Which One Is Better
Although most of the research has been on ketone supplements, this does not mean that the ketogenic diet is inferior to these supplements. In fact, the opposite is true. Not only does the ketogenic diet increase ketone levels, but it reduces insulin and glucose levels as well. By lowering insulin and glucose levels and increasing ketones at the same time, the ketogenic diet gives the brain the fuel it needs while eliminating two of the factors that can cause plaque and tangle build up. Ketones supplements cannot do all of this for you.
Either way, you or your loved ones can get results from both options. What you choose depends on what you are willing to commit to and what is pertinent to your needs and your lifestyle. If ketone supplements are easiest for you, try them out. But if they arent working as well as youd like, then the ketogenic diet is the best option for you.
Use Of Kd By Seniors: Risks
Among the elderly, malnutrition is a particularly common problem, caused by comorbidities, poor nutrition, and the aging process. Patients with dementia are more likely to develop it than healthy individuals . Malnutrition is associated with an inadequate and/or insufficient supply of nutrients, which can affect the loss of muscle mass and also contribute to poorer health, including the potential for premature death .
People diagnosed with PD are more likely to be malnourished and have a lower BMI compared to healthy individuals. The cause of this phenomenon is not fully understood. This is believed to be influenced by factors such as the severity of the condition, the presence of seizures, dyskinesia, and limited food intake among PD patients. Some patients are diagnosed with taste and smell disorders that may be related to dietary changes .
People suffering from AD are significantly more likely to develop sarcopenia compared to healthy individuals. The use of classic 4:1 and 3:1 KDs may exacerbate malnutrition and loss of muscle mass due to the reduced calorific value of the diet and low protein supply . The authors of some studies suggest that KD can prevent muscle atrophy, but other studies do not support this .
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How Genetics Apply To Alzheimers
With the popularity of genetic testing on the rise, you may be wondering how genetics play into Alzheimers disease risk. The bittersweet reality is that these tests can pick up one gene variant called ApoE, which is intimately connected with Alzheimers disease.
More specifically, individuals carrying the 4 allele are at increased risk of Alzheimers Disease compared with those who have the more common 3 allele, whereas the 2 allele decreases risk.
Earlier we discussed the factors and theoretical causes of Alzheimers disease and these apply to ApoE e4 allele carriers as well. In fact, the only difference between ApoE carriers and non-ApoE carriers is that ApoE carriers are more susceptible to Alzheimers disease, and once they do have the disease, it progresses more rapidly. However, if you have the ApoE 4 allele, it doesnt mean that you are destined to have issues with Alzheimers.
These findings show us that our genetic variants do not determine our fate, we do. It is clear from these cross-cultural studies that the ApoE 4 allele is not what we should be focused on when it comes to Alzheimers disease we should be focused on making the right lifestyle and dietary choices.
Can A High Fat Diet Be Healthy
According to David Diamond PhD, Saturated fat does not clog the arteries: Coronary heart disease is a chronic condition, the risk of which can be effectively reduced from healthy lifestyle interventions. We have known for 150 years that a high carbohydrate diet contributes to fat in the blood and contributes to obesity. He goes on to say, the poor science that was used to support the idea that increased fat intake increases cholesterol and damages arteries was authored by Ancel Keys who had no background in nutrition, but did have a BA in Economics and a PhD in Fish Physiology. Keys theory that fat in diet causes increased risk for high cholesterol and heart attack was based on extremely flawed science and became dogma without ever being rigorously assessed. A generation of citizens has grown up since the Diet/Heart Hypothesis was launched as official dogma. They have been led by the greatest scientific deception of our times: the notion that consumption of animal fat causes heart disease. George Mann MD, Nutrition Today, 1985. The belief that atherosclerosis is due to high cholesterol has been perpetuated by powerful forces using tactics to preserve the profits and reputations of those who promote them. Paul Rosch M.D, Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, 2008. The diet heart hypothesis is sustained by social, political and financial institutions which have little to do with science and established success in public health. Uffe Ravnskov MD PhD, 2008.
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The Claim: Keto Causes Nutrient And Fiber Deficiencies
Senior citizens and Alzheimers patients are already at an increased risk for malnutrition. Thats why some people worry that putting them on a restrictive diet could lead to nutrient deficiencies.
Along with that, keto eliminates grains and other high-carb sources of fiber, leading to concerns that theres no good way to get fiber on the diet.
A 2019 paper published in Current Developments in Nutrition found that Alzheimers patients can follow a nutritionally-dense keto diet with medium chain triglycerides , avocados, and non-starchy vegetables.
In terms of fiber and keto, theres no excuse to skimp on fiberyou just have to get it from non-grain, whole food sources instead of unhealthy processed foods.
Several large-scale scientific reviews indicate that eating sufficient fiber can reduce your risk of dying from both heart disease and cancer by at least 10%. The benefits of eating fiber in these studies occurred with a total daily fiber intake between 18-26 grams, which is lower than USDA recommendations .
And if you follow the ketogenic diet, moderate fiber intake probably is sufficient. Many of the benefits of high fiber diets come from the production of short-chain fatty acids in your gut, which alter gene expression and reduce inflammation in your body.
If you eat a high-fat keto diet, your diet already includes plenty of butyrate and other SCFAs, and your body also makes anti-inflammatory ketones like beta-hydroxybutyrate.
Can Ketosis Help With Mental Decline
There have been many studies done showing how a state of ketosis can provide benefit for patients who are cognitively impaired:
- In a study, a placebo or medium-chain triglycerides were administered to 20 patients who had Alzheimers disease or mild cognitive impairment. Ketone levels were increased in those given the MCT within 90 minutes. The higher amounts of ketone levels associated with more significant improvements in memory .
- A longer and more substantial study was done about five years later with 152 patients who had mild Alzheimers. All the patients taking a ketogenic compound showed improvements in cognition 45 days later .
- Ketones by themselves have been shown to be neuroprotective , which is a significant benefit when it comes to prevention of mental decline over time.
Furthermore, diabetes, high cholesterol, inflammation, and other poor health signs are all significant risk factors for developing Alzheimers. These conditions that can all be addressed with a well-planned high-fat and low-carb ketogenic diet.
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The Claim: Keto And High
Until recently, most doctors and scientists believed that high-fat, high-cholesterol diets resulted in clogged arteries.
While this theory is now heavily contested, its fair to say that keto spooks people who still buy into it.
Robust evidence shows going keto actually improves many cardiovascular risk factors, including lowering bad cholesterol levels and raising good cholesterol levels.
When it comes to keto, theres no substantial reason to be concerned about heart health.
Additionally, some evidence also shows higher total cholesterol may help prevent Alzheimers!
What Does Ketosis Do To The Brain
Ketosis refers to the natural production of ketone bodies by your liver. Ketone bodies, or ketones for short, are energy-rich molecules that your body produces in the absence of carbohydrates.
When youre producing ketones, it means your body is running on fat for fuel instead of relying on carbs and sugar.
To achieve and maintain ketosis, you must eat no more than 30-50 grams of carbs per day.
When it comes to the brain, there are two key aspects to understand about ketosis and the keto diet:
- Ketones have measurable effects on your brain.
- The absence of carbohydrates also has effects on brain tissue and brain function.
In other words, certain brain effects of ketosis are due to the presence of ketones, while others are due to the absence of carbohydrates from your diet.
You can also achieve some of the effects of ketosis by using supplements like medium-chain triglyceride oil and ketone esters, without eliminating carbs .
Heres what you need to know about ketones and the brain:
- Ketones are the most efficient brain fuel, and absorb more readily than glucose .
- Ketones have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in the brain, meaning they can prevent or limit damage to cells.
- Ketones in your brain result in epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation and gene expression.
And heres what happens to your brain when you dramatically reduce carb intake:
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Disorders Of Glucose Metabolism: A Predisposing Factor For Ad
In AD, glucose metabolism is impaired at the nerve cell level. There is an association between the occurrence of type 2 diabetes and the progression of neurodegenerative processes. Increased risk of AD correlates with hyperinsulinemia, a component of insulin resistance. Insulin receptors are located in areas of the brain that are particularly vulnerable to neurodegeneration. However, insulin must be delivered to them with blood because it is not synthesized in sufficient amounts in the brain. This hormone plays a significant role in the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the formation of neuroplastic and neurotrophic factors, which are essential for memory processes and the disposal of amyloid beta from the brain. Insulin deficiency in the brain leads to dysregulation of these mechanisms .
Treating Alzheimers Disease With A Ketogenic Diet
Alzheimers disease is the most common type of dementia, officially the seventh leading cause of death in the United States . And rates are rapidly increasing as the worlds population continues to age. Estimates suggest that 6.2 million Americans are currently living with Alzheimers disease. These numbers are projected to increase to 13.8 million by 2060 .
The costs of Alzheimers disease are staggering, not only financially, but also in the devastating effects on families and communities. While memory problems herald the onset of Alzheimers, as the disease progresses, it invariably leads to functional decline. Caring for individuals with the condition can be a huge burden, as individuals with Alzheimers may no longer recognize caregivers and family. Unpaid care provided to dementia patients was valued at an astounding 257 billion dollars as of 2020 .
Unfortunately, current medical treatments for Alzheimers do not alter the course of the disease. While they may provide modest functional improvements, individuals still continue to decline and will eventually succumb to the condition.
Alternative approaches for treating Alzheimers disease and preventing cognitive decline are desperately needed. While often widely ignored, many functional medicine approaches are supported by the research literature, and data is building that suggests a ketogenic diet may be a valid treatment approach.
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Type 3 Diabetes: Can A Keto Diet Prevent Alzheimers
Type 3 Diabetes: Can a Keto Diet Prevent Alzheimers?
Posted 4 months ago
“Type 3 diabetes” is a recently-coined nickname for Alzheimer’s disease. As it happens, Alzheimer’s and diabetes share similar characteristics, such as problems with the hormone insulin.
Specifically, people with Alzheimer’s disease have insulin resistance in the brain. As a result, they have issues using our primary brain fuel: glucose.
That’s where the Keto diet comes in. Keto provides alternate brain fuel that pick up the slack.
Keep reading to learn about Alzheimer’s disease, why it’s called type 3 diabetes, and how Keto may improve metabolic and brain health.
Keto And Modifiable Risk Factors
As discussed in a previous section, up to a third of all Alzheimers cases may be preventable by targeting the risk factors that can be changed .
First of all, lets review the known modifiable risk factors:
- Traumatic brain injury
- Overweight or obesity
Now its time to take a look at how keto interacts with each of these risk factors.
Traumatic Brain Injury
While no one chooses to get TBIs or concussions, theres substantial evidence that keto reduces the adverse effects of TBIs in animals, and may do the same in humans.
These effects certainly apply after TBIs, but if you are already in ketosis before you receive a head injury, the benefits of keto for TBIs are even more pronounced.
Translation: TBIs increase your risk of Alzheimers, but keto appears to reduce damage from TBIs.
Next up, insulin resistance.
Some researchers have begun calling Alzheimers type 3 diabetes because severe insulin resistance increases risk of the disease by up to four-fold.
The pathogenesis of Alzheimers dementia has a lot in common with diabetes, too. Diabetes and Alzheimers both involve glucose hypometabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, and free radical damage.
Insulin resistance occurs primarily because of excessive carbohydrate intake. So its hardly surprising that a low carbohydrate keto diet is a fantastic way to improve insulin sensitivity, including in your brain.
For even better results, pair keto with regular exercise.
High Blood Pressure
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Am I A Candidate For The Ketogenic Diet
While the short answer is yes for the majority of people consuming a western diet, we urge you to consult your general practitioner prior to making the switch to Keto. The Charlie Foundation will provide you with the information and tools necessary to adopt the diet, and partnering with your doctor during this process will ensure the most therapeutic outcome. We also suggest that you connect with a diet professional who can help you form a plan in collaboration with your doctor, who may be less familiar with the diet.
The Ketogenic Diet And Parkinsons Disease
In vitro studies also revealed a potentially advantageous influence of ketone bodies on the functionality of synapses in an induced dysfunction of the respiratory mitochondrial chain, caused by an administration of rotenone, being an inhibitor of complex I and of the 3-nitropropionic acid, which is an inhibitor of complex II. The protective effects of ketone bodies could result from an antioxidative activity, improved ATP synthesis, and from the effect on the ATP-sensitive potassium channel . In other studies, the beneficial effects of ketone bodies were described, resulting from a mitigated inflammatory condition induced by MPTP administration and from reduced apoptosis of dopaminergic cells exposed to substances causing their death . In a study on a rat model of Parkinsons disease, Cheng et al. concluded that KD, via glutathione activity, exerted a neuroprotective effect against the toxic effect of 6-hydroxydopamine.
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